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Prostate cancer is a kind of cancer that develops in the prostate gland, a small walnut-shaped gland in males found below the bladder. Seminal fluid is produced by the prostate gland and is used to nurture and transport sperm.

Prostate cancer develops when the cells in the prostate gland begin to grow and replicate uncontrolled, resulting in the formation of a tumor. If cancer cells are not treated, they can spread to other regions of the body, such as the lymph nodes or bones.

One of the most common types of cancer among males is prostate cancer. It usually affects older men, and the risk rises with age. While the precise etiology of prostate cancer is unknown, several risk factors such as age, family history, and ethnicity may all play a role in its development.

Early-stage prostate cancer frequently does not manifest any symptoms. However, if the cancer advances, it can cause bladder problems such as frequent urination, weak urine flow, blood in the urine, or pain while urinating. Prostate cancer in its advanced stages can cause bone discomfort, weight loss, weariness, and other symptoms.

Early detection of prostate cancer is critical for successful treatment and improved outcomes. It’s important for men to be aware of the risk factors, symptoms, and screening options for prostate cancer. Regular discussions with healthcare professionals can help in understanding individual risk and making informed decisions regarding prostate health.

How is prostate cancer diagnosed?

Prostate cancer is detected through a mix of screening tests, physical examinations, and other diagnostic procedures. The following are the most popular ways to diagnose prostate cancer:

  1. PSA Test: The prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test is a blood test that detects the presence of PSA in the body. PSA values that are elevated may indicate the existence of prostate cancer, but more testing is required to confirm the diagnosis.
  2. Digital Rectal Examination (DRE): A healthcare expert does a DRE by inserting a gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to feel the prostate gland. Atypicalities such as lumps or hard spots may indicate the existence of prostate cancer.
  3. Biopsy: If the PSA test or DRE results indicate that prostate cancer is present, a biopsy may be performed. A needle is used to extract a tiny tissue sample from the prostate gland during a biopsy. The sample is then inspected under a microscope to determine the presence of cancer cells.
  4. Imaging Tests: Ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), or computed tomography (CT) scans can all be used to visualize the prostate gland and surrounding tissues. These tests can assist in determining the extent or stage of cancer.
  5. Gleason Score: Following a biopsy, a Gleason score is assigned to the acquired tissue sample. This score shows the cancer cells’ aggressiveness or grade. The Gleason score is a number between 2 and 10, with higher values signifying more aggressive cancer.

Once prostate cancer is diagnosed, additional tests, such as bone scans or positron emission tomography (PET) scans, may be performed to determine if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.

Relationship between PSA levels and Prostate Cancer

PSA levels and prostate cancer are connected because the PSA test can give us clues about the possibility of having prostate cancer. When there is an issue with the prostate, such as prostate cancer, the PSA levels in the blood can increase. However, other factors like age, prostate size, and certain medical conditions can also cause elevated PSA levels. 

If the PSA levels are significantly high or if there are other concerning factors, the doctor may recommend additional tests to confirm or rule out the presence of prostate cancer. Regular monitoring of PSA levels, along with discussions with a healthcare professional, can help guide decisions regarding further testing and appropriate prostate health management. If you have any concerns about your PSA levels or prostate health, it is always a good idea to consult with a healthcare professional at https://www.synlab.com.ng/ 

Importance of Early Detection and Treatment

Detecting prostate cancer early and receiving timely treatment offer several important benefits. When prostate cancer is found early:

  • It increases the chances of successful treatment. Doctors have more options to choose from, including less invasive methods that can effectively manage or even cure the cancer.
  • Treating prostate cancer early helps protect the prostate’s normal function and reduces the risk of side effects from aggressive treatments. 
  • By catching the cancer early, men have a better chance of maintaining their ability to urinate and perform sexually, leading to a better quality of life after treatment.
  • It can help prevent the cancer from spreading to other parts of the body, reducing complications and improving long-term outcomes. 

What is PSA Screening and Who should get PSA screening?

PSA screening is a test that helps check the levels of something called prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in your blood. It’s a way to look for possible signs of prostate cancer or keep an eye on how it’s progressing. But who needs this test? Well, that depends on a few things and you should talk to your doctor about it.

Usually, men who are 50 years old or older are the ones who get PSA screening. However, some men may need to start earlier, like around 45 years old, if they have a higher chance of getting prostate cancer. This could be because of their race, or if they have close family members who’ve had prostate cancer. Sometimes, men with symptoms like trouble peeing or other prostate-related problems might also need the test.

The decision to get PSA screening is something you should discuss with your doctor. They’ll talk to you about the good things and the not-so-good things about the test. Sometimes, the test might show something that looks like cancer when it’s really not, which can cause worry and more tests that you might not need. Plus, it can find slow-growing cancers that may not need treatment right away. That’s why it’s important to think about your own situation and what’s best for you.

So, if you’re wondering about getting PSA screening, have a chat with us at https://www.synlab.com.ng/.  We will consider your age, any risks you might have, any problems you’re having, and your overall health. Together, we can figure out if PSA screening is something that makes sense for you.

Frequency of PSA Screening

How often you should get PSA screening depends on a few things and it’s best to talk to your doctor about it. For most guys, getting screened every two years starting at age 50 is a good idea. But if you have a higher risk, like a family history of prostate cancer, your doctor might suggest starting earlier, around age 45.

Your doctor will also consider other things like your overall health and any symptoms you might have. They’ll look at your individual factors to figure out the best screening schedule for you. It’s important to have regular discussions with your doctor about PSA screening so they can keep an eye on your prostate health. They’ll review your risk factors, interpret your test results, and give you the best advice based on what’s going on with you. So trust your doctor and follow their recommendations for when to get screened again.

Pros and Cons of PSA Screening

PSA screening offers advantages and disadvantages that should be carefully considered. Here are some crucial items to remember:


  • PSA screening can aid in the early detection of prostate cancer, when therapy is often more effective.
  • Regular PSA screenings can help track variations in PSA levels over time, providing important information regarding prostate health.
  • Making Informed Decisions: PSA screening findings can assist you in making informed decisions regarding additional diagnostic tests or treatment options in conjunction with your healthcare professional.


  • False Positives: PSA screening can result in false-positive findings, indicating the presence of prostate cancer when none exists. This might lead to worry and unneeded testing.
  • Overdiagnosis: PSA testing can occasionally uncover slow-growing or non-aggressive forms of prostate cancer that do not necessitate prompt treatment. This can result in overtreatment and potentially harmful adverse effects.
  • Side Effects: Following a positive PSA result, diagnostic tests and therapies may cause infection, urine incontinence, and erectile dysfunction.

Controversies Surrounding PSA Screening

PSA screening for prostate cancer has some things that people argue about in the medical world. Here are a few important points to think about:

  1. Finding too much and treating too much: Some people worry that PSA screening finds cancers that might never cause problems. This means that some men could end up getting treatments they don’t really need.
  2. Not always accurate: The PSA test can go up for reasons other than cancer, like having an enlarged prostate or an infection. This can make the test results look like there’s a problem when there might not be.
  3. Different opinions: Different groups of doctors have different ideas about when to start PSA screening, how often to do it, and what levels to consider as a concern. This can make it confusing for both patients and doctors.
  4. Impact on quality of life: Treating prostate cancer can have side effects that affect a man’s daily life, like trouble with controlling urine or problems with sexual function. Some people think that the potential harm from treatment might be more than the benefits for certain individuals, especially if they have other health problems or might not live a long time.

Remember, the most important thing is to have a good conversation with your doctor, ask questions, and understand what PSA screening can and can’t do. Then, you can make a decision that feels right for you.

PSA and Other Medical Conditions

Sometimes, PSA levels can be affected by medical conditions that are not related to cancer. It’s important to consider these conditions when interpreting PSA results to avoid unnecessary worries or misunderstandings. Here are a few things to know:

  1. Enlarged Prostate: Sometimes, the prostate gland can get bigger but not because of cancer. This condition, called Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), can cause higher PSA levels due to the enlarged gland.
  2. Prostatitis: When the prostate gland gets inflamed or infected, it’s called prostatitis. This can also lead to increased PSA levels because of the inflammation.
  1. Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): Infections in the urinary tract can temporarily raise PSA levels. These infections can affect the prostate gland and cause the PSA readings to be higher.
  2. Recent Prostate Procedures: If you’ve recently had a procedure like a prostate biopsy or surgery, it can cause a temporary rise in PSA levels. Timing is important to consider when interpreting PSA results after such procedures.

When doctors look at PSA levels, they consider your medical history, any symptoms you might have, and the presence of non-cancerous conditions. This helps them accurately interpret the PSA results and decide if further investigation or treatment is needed.

Final Thoughts

In the future, there are exciting new directions for PSA testing and prostate cancer screening. Scientists and doctors are working on ways to make the tests even better and more personalised.

They are studying different markers in the blood that could give more accurate results. They are also looking at our genes to see if they can help predict who is more likely to get prostate cancer. This could help doctors decide who should get screened and when.

They are also using fancy imaging techniques to see the cancer better and find it earlier. And they are working on treatments that are specific to each person’s cancer. It’s important for researchers to keep studying these things to make sure they work well and are safe.

So, in the future, PSA testing and prostate cancer screening may become even more effective in finding and treating the cancer early. It’s a promising area of research that could save many lives.

In conclusion, prioritising your prostate health is crucial for overall well-being. The PSA test offers valuable insights into your prostate health status, enabling proactive management and early intervention when needed. Take control of your prostate health. Contact us today, to schedule your PSA test and ensure peace of mind. Don’t wait, start prioritising your prostate health now.

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