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Feeling tired, gaining weight unexplainably, or dealing with mood swings? These and other symptoms may be caused by an often-overlooked source: The Thyroid Gland. Understanding the complexities of thyroid function is critical for overcoming the challenges it brings and achieving optimal well-being.

What is Thyroid Function?

Thyroid function refers to the thyroid gland’s normal and effective operation, which is a small butterfly-shaped gland positioned in the front of the neck.

You may not give it much thought, yet this small gland in your neck plays an important role in your body. It produces hormones known as thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which aid in the regulation of vital functions such as metabolism, energy levels, body temperature, and even how you grow and develop. In simpler terms, here is how it works: 

How does a thyroid gland work? 

Have you ever attended a music concert when the choir is supervised by a music conductor, Like the man in blue in the image below?

Consider your thyroid gland to be a music conductor, managing your body’s symphony of operations to maintain harmony. However, things might become out of tune at times. If your thyroid doesn’t produce enough hormones, it’s like the conductor slowing down the music, resulting in hypothyroidism. If, on the other hand, your thyroid is working overtime and creating too many hormones, it’s like the conductor accelerating the tempo, resulting in hyperthyroidism. Both of these disorders can result in a variety of symptoms and may necessitate medical intervention.

Thyroid hormones perform important roles in the body, acting as messengers between cells and organs to control various activities. Aside from the previously mentioned, here are more  important roles of the thyroid hormones you should know:

  1. Maintaining your engine: Thyroid hormones regulate your metabolism. That is the mechanism by which your body converts food into energy. They influence how quickly or slowly your body consumes calories, which can affect your weight and energy levels.
  2. Keeping your body temperature stable: Thyroid hormones assist in regulating your body temperature. They ensure that you stay warm when it’s freezing outside and don’t overheat when it’s hot.
  3. Keeping your heart healthy: Thyroid hormones play a part in keeping your heart healthy. They aid in the regulation of your heart rate, blood pressure, and cholesterol levels, all of which are essential for a robust and healthy heart.
  4. Brain power: Thyroid hormones are vital for brain development, particularly in newborns and children. They promote optimal brain growth and development. They help people with remembering, thinking, and maintaining a calm mood.
  5. Strong bones: Thyroid hormones also play a role in maintaining the health and strength of your bones. They aid in the maintenance of the proper balance of new bone growth and old bone loss, which is critical in the prevention of disorders such as osteoporosis.
  6. Muscles on the move: Thyroid hormones affect how your muscles work. They help with muscle strength, coordination, and even reflexes.
  7. Reproductive health: Thyroid hormones are important for both men and women when it comes to reproductive health. They help with fertility, menstrual cycles in women, and proper functioning of the reproductive organs.

Thyroid hormones, as you can see, play a variety of critical roles in your body. It is critical to maintain balance and ensure that your thyroid is functioning appropriately. Regular check-ups and proper treatment can assist you in remaining healthy and feeling your best.

So, join me on this educational adventure as we unravel the mysteries of thyroid function and learn how to overcome its hurdles for a healthier and happier life.

Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3)

We mentioned Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) at the start of this article. You’re undoubtedly wondering what we mean by it. Here’s everything you need to know about these powerful thyroid hormones: 

The thyroid gland produces two key hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones are essential for regulating metabolism, growth, and development throughout the body.

The production of T4 is primarily carried out by the thyroid gland itself. Thyroglobulin is produced when the gland absorbs iodine from the plasma and mixes it with the amino acid tyrosine. Thyroglobulin undergoes various changes with the help of enzymes, resulting in the creation of T4, while T3 is created in the body by converting thyroxine (T4), the inactive form of thyroid hormone, in various tissues. This conversion takes place with the help of enzymes, which are found largely in the liver and other organs.

Here are the Roles of Triiodothyronine (T3):

  • Regulates metabolism: T3 plays a crucial role in controlling the body’s metabolic rate. It helps convert food into energy and determines how efficiently cells use that energy.
  • Supports growth and development: T3 is essential for proper growth and development, especially in children. It aids in the growth of bones, muscles, and organs, and supports normal brain development.
  • Regulates body temperature: T3 helps maintain body temperature by influencing heat production and heat dissipation.
  • Supports cardiovascular function: T3 affects the heart rate and helps maintain the normal functioning of the cardiovascular system.
  • Enhances cognitive function: T3 is involved in brain function and has an impact on memory, concentration, and overall cognitive abilities.

Here are the Roles of Thyroxine (T4):

  • Precursor to T3: T4 serves as the main storage form of thyroid hormone in the body. It is converted to T3 as needed, and T3 is the more active form that directly influences cellular functions.
  • Maintains metabolic balance: T4 plays a role in regulating the body’s metabolic rate, ensuring that energy production and consumption are balanced.
  • Supports growth and development: T4 contributes to normal growth and development, particularly in children. It helps with the growth of bones, muscles, and organs.
  • Influences body weight: T4 affects body weight by influencing metabolic processes and energy expenditure.
  • Supports reproductive health: T4 is involved in maintaining normal reproductive function, including the regulation of menstrual cycles in women.

Imbalances in T3 levels can have serious consequences for your health. Too much T3, known as hyperthyroidism, can result in symptoms such as weight loss, increased heart rate, anxiety, and tremors. Insufficient T3, often known as hypothyroidism, can cause weight gain, weariness, cold intolerance, and cognitive impairments. While; 

T4 level imbalances can have an effect on general health. Hypothyroidism, defined by insufficient T4 production, can cause fatigue, weight gain, cold sensitivity, and depression. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, occurs when the thyroid gland produces too much T4, causing symptoms such as weight loss, rapid heartbeat, irritability, and heat sensitivity.

Taking a thyroid function test today can provide valuable insights into your thyroid health and help ensure early detection and timely intervention if needed. Don’t hesitate to reach out to your healthcare provider and prioritise your thyroid health.”

Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism

We have seen how imbalances of Thyroxine (T4) and Triiodothyronine (T3) cause hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Where we said too much T3 causes a disorder known as Hyperthyroidism. While insufficient T4 production causes Hypothyroidism. Let’s dive into more details on each of these disorders. 


Hypothyroidism is a disorder in which the thyroid gland does not generate adequate thyroid hormones. The most prevalent cause is Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, commonly known as autoimmune thyroiditis. It occurs when the body’s immune system attacks the thyroid gland by mistake.

Other causes include thyroid gland removal surgery or radiation therapy for thyroid cancer. Certain variables, such as a family history of thyroid issues, being female (since it is more frequent in women), and having certain medical diseases, such as type 1 diabetes, can raise the risk of getting hypothyroidism.

Symptoms and Signs

Low thyroid hormone levels can cause a variety of symptoms. Hypothyroidism is characterised by continuous fatigue, weight gain, and extreme coldness. In addition, they may have dry skin, brittle hair, and muscle weakness. Changes in mood, including depression, as well as memory and attention problems, can occur. Additionally, some people may have hoarseness of their voice, constipation, and menstruation irregularities in women.

  • Persistent fatigue
  • Weight gain
  • Feeling excessively cold
  • Dry skin
  • Brittle hair
  • Muscle weakness
  • Mood changes (including depression)
  • Difficulties with memory and concentration
  • Hoarse voice
  • Constipation
  • Menstrual irregularities in women

What treatment options are available?

The primary treatment for hypothyroidism is thyroid hormone replacement therapy. To compensate for the hormone shortage, synthetic thyroid hormones, commonly levothyroxine (T4), are used. The drug is taken orally and works to restore the body’s thyroid hormone levels. Regular monitoring of thyroid hormone levels via blood tests is required to ensure that the dosage is suitable and can be modified as needed.

Adopting a healthy lifestyle, in addition to medicine, is essential for treating hypothyroidism. This involves eating a well-balanced, nutrient-dense diet and engaging in frequent physical activity to promote overall well-being.

If you are experiencing hypothyroid symptoms or have questions about your thyroid function, it is critical that you visit a healthcare expert at SYNLAB. We can run the appropriate tests and advise you on how to properly manage the disease.


Hyperthyroidism is a disorder in which the thyroid gland overproduces thyroid hormones. It has specific symptoms and signs and can be caused by a variety of circumstances.

Different things can contribute to hyperthyroidism. Graves’ disease, an autoimmune illness, is the most prevalent cause. Other risk factors include thyroid nodules, thyroid inflammation, high iodine consumption, abuse of thyroid medication, and a family history of hyperthyroidism.

Symptoms and Signs

When your thyroid is overworked, it can cause a slew of symptoms and signs. Here are a few examples:

  • Your heart may race or you may experience palpitations.
  • Even if your hunger is out of control, you may have unexpected weight loss.
  • Anxiety, irritability, and tenseness become more common.
  • Tremors or shaky hands could become an everyday occurrence.
  • Even when it’s not hot outside, you start sweating profusely.
  • You become extremely sensitive to heat.
  • It’s difficult to keep up with your regular routine when you’re tired and weak.
  • Sleep becomes tough because you may have difficulties falling or staying asleep.
  • You may notice that your bowel movements are more frequent or looser than usual.
  • Women may have irregular menstrual cycles.

What treatment options are available?

The good news is that hyperthyroidism can be managed with the right treatment. Here are some options:

  • Your doctor might prescribe antithyroid medication to help reduce the production of thyroid hormones.
  • In some cases, you may need radioactive iodine therapy to zap part of your thyroid gland.
  • If necessary, surgery called thyroidectomy may be recommended to remove the thyroid gland.
  • Beta-blockers can help control symptoms like rapid heartbeat and trembling.

If you observe any of these symptoms or suspect you have hyperthyroidism, you should see a doctor right away. They will be able to assess your ailment, identify the underlying reason, and help you through the proper treatment strategy. Your health is essential, so don’t be afraid to get assistance when necessary.

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